Presenting a Framework for Describing the Technological Transitions Base on the Multilevel Analysis Approach (Case Study: The Transition to Renewable Energy in Iran)

Document Type : Research Article (Original Article)


1 PhD candidate of Science and Technology Policy, Department of Science and Research Policy, National Research Institute for Science Policy, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Science and Society, National Research Institute for Science Policy, Tehran, Iran.

3 MSc in Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

4 Iran Renewable Energy Association expert.

5 Assistant Professor, Department of Futures Studies, National Research Institute for Science Policy, Tehran, Iran.


Nowadays, the need to discover and use new energy sources has become increasingly important due to increasing need of societies, especially in developing countries indcluding Iran, for energy carriers, regarding the finitude of fossil fuels, as well as the emironmental impacts of these fuels. The new and renewable energies, as endless, free of charge, environmentally friendly and accessible energy sources to most locations, can be a good alternative to fossil fuels. Based on expressed reasons, the focus on this technological area has significantly increased in Iran. In this regard, the present study aimed to describe the technological transition of renewable energy in Iran, in order to answer the question of whether the transition to renewable energy is taking place in Iran. In other words, the present study described the process of developing renewable energy in Iran based on transition studies and the levels of niche, regime, and landscape. Initially, the important events in this area are descrios from the beginning to the present in three levels of niche, regime and landscap and finally, the phases of renewable energy transition are explained in four phases, combining multi-level and multi-phase approach. Based on the results, Iran is already in take off stage and for explaining the transition in developing countries like Iran, it is better to consider “access to the mature niches” instead of “the existence of the mature niches”, such that a more accurate analysis of transition can be performed in these countries.