بررسی سیر تطور هم رقابتی و ارائه مدل جامع راهبرد هم رقابتی در شرایط تحریم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه حضرت معصومه، قم، ایران.

2 کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه حضرت معصومه، قم، ایران.

چکیده

حفظ موقعیت رقابتی و بقاء یکی از مهمترین چالش‌های شرکت‌ها در شرایط عدم اطمینان محیطی بالاست. در چنین شرایطی تحلیل و پیش‌بینی پویایی همکاری و رقابت برای شرکت‌ها بسیار مشکل است . این در حالی است که هم‌رقابتی راهبردی است که در دو دهه اخیر به منظور کسب ، حفظ و ارتقا جایگاه رقابتی مورد توجه بسیاری از شرکت‌ها قرار گرفته است. با توجه به شرایط عدم اطمینان ناشی از تحریم‌ها در محیط تجاری کشور، استراتژی هم‌رقابتی برای بسیاری از شرکت‌ها برای عبور از این شرایط سودمند است. اما بررسی‌‌های انجام گرفته نشان دهنده آن است که تاکنون الگویی از استراتژی هم‌رقابتی در شرایط عدم‌اطمینان بالا ارائه نشده است. در این راستا هدف این پژوهش ارائه مدل جامعی از استراتژی هم‌رقابتی براساس رویکرد سیستمی در شرایط تحریم می‌باشد. در این پژوهش به‎منظور تبیین یک مدل جامع هم‌رقابتی، با مرور سیستماتیک ادبیات و به‎ کمک روش پژوهش کیفی فراترکیب (متاسنتز)، کلیۀ ابعاد استراتژی هم‌رقابتی، شامل 13 بعد و 80 شاخص، شناسایی شده است که شامل سه بخش پیشران، فرایند و پیامد می باشد. براساس مدل پیشران‌ها شامل عوامل درون سازمانی (فردی و سازمانی) و برون سازمانی (محیطی و صنعتی)، فرایندها شامل مدیریت انتخاب، مدیریت ارتباطات، مدیریت عملیات، مدیریت پایداری و مدیریت تنش، و پیامدهای همرقابتی نیز شامل پیامدهای خرد (مشتری و سازمان) و کلان (بین سازمانی و صنعت) می باشد. مدل پیشنهادی می‌تواند به عنوان مبنایی برای برنامه‌ریزی از سوی مدیران و سیاست-گذاران در شرایط عدم اطمینان محیطی بالا باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Historical trend of coopetition and developing a comprehensive model of coopetition strategy under sanctions condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Talari 1
  • Ameneh Binandeh 2
1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management, Hazrat-e Masoumeh University (HMU), Qom, Iran.
2 MSc in Business Administration, Faculty of Management, Hazrat-e Masoumeh University (HMU), Qom, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Maintaining competitive position and survival is one of the most important challenges for companies in the condition of high environmental uncertainty. In such a situation, it is very difficult for corporates to analyze and predict the dynamics of cooperation and competition. coopetition is a strategy that has attracted the attention of many corporates in the last two decades in order to gain, maintain and improve its competitive position. Given the uncertainty surrounding sanctions in the country's business environment, a coopetition strategy is beneficial for many corporates to overcome this situation. But studies show that no pattern of coopetition strategy has not yet been presented in the condition of high uncertainty. In this regard, the aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive model of coopetition strategy based on a systemic approach in the condition of sanctions. In this study, in order to explain a comprehensive model of coopetition, all dimensions of coopetition strategy including 13 dimensions and 80 indicators have been identified by a systematic review of literature and with help of meta-synthesis qualitative research method. This include three section: driver, process, and outcome. Based on the model, drivers include intra-organizational(individual and organizational) and extra-organizational factors (environmental and industrial), processes include selection management, communication management, operations management, sustainability management and tension management, and the outcomes of coopetition also include micro-level (customer and organization) and macro-level (inter-organization and industry). The proposed model can be used by managers and policymakers as a basis for planning in conditions of high environmental uncertainty.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • collaboration
  • Competition
  • Cooptition Strategy
  • Meta synthesis
  • Sanctions
حیدری، علی، منطقی، نادری و اسماعیلی ،گیوی، ارائهچارچوبیمفهومیبرایهمپاییفناورانه موتورهایتوربوفنتجاریدرایرانبابهرهگیریاز رویکردفراترکیب، فصلنامه بهبود مدیریت، دوره31،شماره 3، بهار 1398.
 
Akdoğan, A. A., & Cingšz, A. An empirical study on determining the attitudes of small and medium sized businesses (SMEs) related to coopetition. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58(2012): 252-258.
Bench, S., & Day, T. The user experience of critical care discharge: a meta-synthesis of qualitative research. International journal of nursing studies, 47(2010): 487-499.
Bengtsson, M., & Raza-Ullah, T. A systematic review of research on coopetition: Toward a multilevel understanding. Industrial Marketing Management, 57(2016): 23-39.
Bengtsson, M., & Kock, S. Coopetition” in business Networks—to cooperate and compete simultaneously. Industrial marketing management, 29(2000):411-426.
Bonel, E., Pellizzari, P., & Rocco, E. Coopetition and complementarities: modeling coopetition strategy and its risks at an individual partner level. Management Research, 6(2008): 189.
Bouncken, R. B., Fredrich, V., & Kraus, S.Configurations of firm-level value capture in coopetition. Long Range Planning, 2019..
Bouncken, R. B., Gast, J., Kraus, S., & Bogers, M. Coopetition: a systematic review, synthesis, and future research directions. Review of Managerial Science, 9(2015): 577-601.
Bouncken, R. B., & Kraus, S. Innovation in knowledge-intensive industries: The double-edged sword of coopetition. Journal of Business Research, 66(2013): 2060-2070.
Bouncken, R. B., & Fredrich, V. Coopetition: performance implications and management antecedents. International Journal of Innovation Management, 16(2012):12-28
Brandenburger, A. M., & Nalebuff, B. J. The right game: Use game theory to shape strategy (Vol. 76): Harvard Business Review Chicago, 1995.
Chang, A. Y., & Cheng, Y. T. Analysis model of the sustainability development of manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises in Taiwan. Journal of Cleaner Production, 207(2019): 458-473.
Chevallier, C., Laarraf, Z., Lacam, J. S., Miloudi, A., & Salvetat, D. Competitive intelligence, knowledge management and coopetition: The case of european high-technology firms. Business Process Management Journal, 22(2016): 1192-1211
Chiambaretto, P., Massé, D., & Mirc, N. “All for One and One for All?”-Knowledge broker roles in managing tensions of internal coopetition: The Ubisoft case. Research Policy, 2018..
Christ, K. L., Burritt, R. L., & Varsei, M. Coopetition as a potential strategy for corporate sustainability. Business Strategy and the Environment, 26(2017): 1029-1040.
Crick, J. M. Moderators affecting the relationship between coopetition and company performance. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 2019.
Crick, J. M. Studying coopetition in a wine industry context: directions for future research, 2018.
Cygler, J., Sroka, W., Solesvik, M., & Dębkowska, K. Benefits and drawbacks of coopetition: The roles of scope and durability in coopetitive relationships. Sustainability, 10(2018): 26-88.
Daidj, N., & Egert, C. Towards new coopetition-based business models? The case of Netflix on the French market. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 2018.
Dahl, J., Kock, S., & Lundgren-Henriksson, E. L. Conceptualizing coopetition strategy as practice: A multilevel interpretative framework. International Studies of Management & Organization, 46(2016): 94-109.
De Resende, L. M. M., Volski, I., Betim, L. M., de Carvalho, G. D. G., De Barros, R., & Senger, F. P. Critical success factors in coopetition: Evidence on a business network. Industrial Marketing Management, 68(2018): 177-187.
Dyer, J. H., & Singh, H. The relational view: Cooperative strategy andsources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Academy of management review, 23(1998): 660-679.
Della Corte, V. Innovation through coopetition: Future directions and new challenges. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 4(2018): 47.
Dorn, S., Schweiger, B., & Albers, S. Levels, phases and themes of coopetition: A systematic literature review and research agenda. European Management Journal, 34(2016): 484-500.
Dong, J. Q., & Yang, C. H. Information technology and innovation outcomes: is knowledge recombination the missing link?. European Journal of Information Systems, 28(2019): 612-626.
Estrada, I., Faems, D., & de Faria, P. Coopetition and product innovation performance: The role of internal knowledge sharing mechanisms and formal knowledge protection mechanisms. Industrial Marketing Management, 53(2016): 56-65.
Estrada, I., & Dong, J. Q. Learning from experience? Technological investments and the impact of coopetition experience on firm profitability. Long Range Planning, 2019.
Gast, J., Gundolf, K., Harms, R., & Collado, E. M. Knowledge management and coopetition: How do cooperating competitors balance the needs to share and protect their knowledge? Industrial Marketing Managemen, 2019.
Gerner, T. In a globalized business environment, competitors cooperate for competitiveness (Doctoral dissertation, JOHANNES KEPLER UNIVERSITY LINZ) ,2018.
Glaser, B. S., & Strauss, A. A. the discovery of grounded theory. New York, 1971.
Gnyawali, D. R., & Park, B. J. R. Co-opetition between giants: Collaboration with competitors for technological innovation. Research Policy, 40(2011): 650-663.
Gomes-Casseres, B. The alliance revolution: The new shape of businessrivalry: Harvard University Press,1996.
Hora, W., Gast, J., Kailer, N., Rey-Marti, A., & Mas-Tur, A. David and Goliath: causes and effects of coopetition between start-ups and corporates. Review of Managerial Science, 12(2018): 411-439.
Jóna, G. A Hungarian and Ukrainian Competitors’ Network: A Spatial Network Analysis Perspective. Urban Science, 2(2018):99.
Klein, K., Semrau, T., Albers, S., & Zajac, E. J. Multimarket coopetition: How the interplay of competition and cooperation affects entry into shared markets. Long Range Planning, 2019.
Köseoğlu, M. A., Yildiz, M., Okumus, F., & Barca, M. The intellectual structure of coopetition: Past, present and future. Journal of Strategy and Management, 2019.
Kraus, S., Meier, F., Niemand, T., Bouncken, R. B., & Ritala, P. In search for the ideal coopetition partner: an experimental study. Review of Managerial Science, 12(2018): 1025-1053.
Kraus, S., Schmid, J., & Gast, J. Innovation through Coopetition: An analysis of small-and medium-sized trust companies operating in the Liechtenstein financial centre. Int. Journal of Business Science and Applied Management, 12(2017).
Le Roy, F., Fernandez, A. S., & Chiambaretto, P. Managing coopetition in knowledge-based industries. Global opportunities for entrepreneurial growth: Coopetition and knowledge dynamics within and across firms, (2017): 187-198.
Levin, M. A., & McDonald, R. E. RA THEORY AS A POST-CHICAGO ARGUMENT FOR LEGAL COOPETITION. Marketing Management Journal, 16(2), 2006.
Monticelli, J. M., Garrido, I. L., & de Vasconcellos, S. L. Coopetition and institutions: a strategy for Brazilian wineries facing internationalization. International Journal of Wine Business Research, 30(2018):74-95.
Morris, M. H., Koçak, A., & Ozer, ACoopetition as a small business strategy: Implications for performance. Journal of small business strategy, 18(2007): 35-56.
Mariani, M. M. Coopetition as an emergent strategy: Empirical evidence from an Italian consortium of opera houses. International Studies of Management& Organization, 37 (2007): 97-126.
Osarenkhoe, A. A study of inter-firm dynamics between competition and cooperation–A coopetition strategy. Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 17(2010): 201-221.
Peng, T. J. A., Pike, S., Yang, J. C. H., & Roos, G. Is cooperation with competitors a good idea? An example in practice. British Journal of Management, 23(2012): 532-560.
Rosińska-Bukowska, Magdalena. "The model of competitiveness assessment of coopetition network systems–competition and cooperation of enterprises in the global economy." Journal of Economics & Management 24 (2016): 5-13.
Rychłowska-Musiał, E. Value Creation in a Firm through Coopetition: Real Options Games Approach. In Contemporary Trends and Challenges in Finance, (2017): 285-295.
Sandelowski, M., & Barroso, J. Handbook for synthesizing qualitative research. Springer Publishing Company, 2006.
Sindakis, S., Aggarwal, S., & Theodorou, P. Coopetition and Knowledge Dynamics: Knowledge Creation and Management for Growth'. Global Opportunities for Entrepreneurial Growth: Coopetition and Knowledge Dynamics within and across Firms (Advanced Strategies in Entrepreneurship, Education and Ecology). Emerald Publishing Limited, (2017):165-185.
Verreynne, M. L., Williams, A. M., Ritchie, B. W., Gronum, S., & Betts, K. S. Innovation diversity and uncertainty in small and medium sized tourism firms. Tourism Management, 72(2019): 257-269.
Yami S., Le Roy F. Stratégies de coopétition. Rivaliser et coopérer simultanément.De Boeck, Bruxelles, 2010.
Zakrzewska-Bielawska, A. What inhibits cooperation with competitors? Barriers of coopetition in the high-tech sector. World Review of Business Research, 4(2014): 213-228.
Zacharia, Z., Plasch, M., Mohan, U., & Gerschberger, M. The emerging role of coopetition within inter-firm relationships. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 2019.
Zimmer, L. Qualitative metasynthesis: a question of dialoguing with texts. Journal of advanced nursing, 53(2006): 311-318.