دلالت‌های «نظام نوآوری مبتنی بر مسئله (PIS)» در تکوین سیاست نوآوری؛ موردکاوی‌ روند تاریخی حل مسائل زلزلة آمریکا و شکاف دیجیتالی کره جنوبی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری سیاست‌گذاری علم و فناوری، دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه تربیت‌مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد گروه مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه تربیت‌مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

مطالعات نظام‌های نوآوری طی دهه‌های گذشته به‌طور قابل توجهی افزایش یافته و رویکردهای مختلفی از آن در ادبیات ارائه شده است؛ متعاقباً سیاست‌های نوآوری نیز با توجه به شرایط هر دوره دستخوش تغییرات اساسی بوده است. تمرکز بیشتر این رویکردها بر توسعۀ نوآوری‌های فناورانه با اهدف صرفاً اقتصادی بوده است. رفع مسائل فنی و اجتماعی کلان از دریچة نظام نوآوری تحت عنوان «نظام نوآوری مبتنی بر مسئله (PIS)» رویکردی است که به تازگی در ادبیات این حوزه وارد شده و مسیر جدیدی را برای توسعة اقتصادی و اجتماعی کشورها ایجاد کرده است. به کارگیری این چارچوب توسط سیاست‌گذاران، مبنایی برای تنظیم سیاست نوآوریِ مبتنی بر مسئله برای چالش‌های پیش روی جامعه خواهد بود. به این منظور، در مقالة حاضر ضمن ارائة سیر تاریخی سیاست‌های نوآوری، به معرفی چارچوب تحلیلی نظام نوآوری مبتنی بر مسئله به عنوان رویکردی جامع برای تحلیل فرایندهای نوآوری فنی و اجتماعی برای حل مسائل کلان جامعه با هدف ارائة مبنایی برای تنظیم سیاست نوآوری مبتنی بر مسئله می‌پردازیم. در نهایت هم بر اساس استراتژی تحلیل تاریخی وقایع به تحلیل دو موردکاوی (مسئله‌های زلزلة آمریکا و شکاف دیجیتالی کره جنوبی) می‌پردازیم.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Implications of the Problem-oriented Innovation System (PIS) in the evolution of innovation policy; Case study of problem historical resolution process in US earthquake and South Korea's digital divide

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shohreh Nasri 1
  • Sepehr Ghazinoory 2
1 PhD in Science and Technology Policy Making, Faculty of Management and Economics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Professor, Faculty of Management and Economics, Tarbiat Modares, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Innovation system studies have increased significantly over the past decades and various approaches have been presented in the literature; consequently, innovation policies have undergone substantial changes in the context of each period. Most of these approaches have focused on the development of technological innovation for purely economic purposes. Resolving macro-level societal problems based on the innovation system, called “Problem-oriented Innovation System (PIS)”, has recently been introduced in the related literature and has opened a new path for economic and social development of countries. Implementation of this framework by policymakers will serve as the basis for developing problem-oriented innovation policy for the problems or challenges facing society. To this end, this paper, while presenting the historical evolution of innovation policies, introduces analytical framework of “Problem-oriented Innovation System” as a comprehensive approach to analyzing technical and social innovation processes for resolving large scale problems with the aim of providing a basis for problem-oriented innovation policy. Finally, we analyze two case studies (the problem resolution systems of US earthquake and the digital divide in South Korea) based on the “Event History Analysis” strategy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Problem-oriented Innovation System
  • PIS
  • Macro-level societal problems
  • innovation policy
  • Problem-oriented innovation policy
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