Analysis of the challenges and solutions for the expansion of knowledge-based production and the utilization of electric buses in Iran

Document Type : Research Article (Original Article)


1 Department of MOT, Faculty of management, Maleke Ashtar University, Tehran, Iran

2 Management and Industrial Engineering School, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


The use of electric buses has a great effect on reducing traffic and air pollution. The purpose of this article was to examine the challenges facing the country to produce and benefit from this product and solutions to solve these challenges. In this research, data was collected through documentary studies and in-depth semi-guided interviews and analyzed through qualitative content analysis. The target community was the experts of electric bus manufacturing companies and related institutions. The number of 72 propositions were categorized into 10 sub-categories and finally 6 main categories, the main categories of which were empowerment, cost, technological cooperation and cultural alignment. Then, action was taken to form a focus group and the extracted challenges and solutions were validated and finalized. Among the important challenges are the dependence on foreign electric propulsion, the unaffordability of bus operations, the high price of electric buses, the infrastructure for conducting some specialized tests to obtain the standard, and the lack of culture for using this new product. Some important solutions include the domestication of electric motors and accessories with government support from domestic companies, the creation of a joint supply chain for bus manufacturing companies, the preparation of a business model based on public-private partnership, and the implementation of Article 12 of the law on removing barriers to production, cultural measures and promotion based on new product and technology requirements, design of night charging system for bus batteries and design of electric base buses


اوجانی. طرح ارتقاء تاب آوری ملی و رقابت پذیری بین المللی, معاونت علمی و فناوری ریاست جمهوری 1400
جاویدتاش, نوید، جنگجو، محمدامین، حدیدی وحید، و صفاری, غلامرضا. "نحوه پذیرش اجتماعی تکنولوژی خودروهای برقی توسط مصرف کنندگان انرژی در جوامع مختلف". دوازدهمین همایش بین المللی انرژی، 1397
حمیدی، رضا. اتوبوس‌های فرسوده، عامل مهم انتشار آلودگی، ایسنا، 1400
خیری, علیرضا. سرمایه گذاری و مشارکت بخش خصوصی در توسعه ناوگان اتوبوسرانی شهر تهران با اتوبوس‌های برقی به روش BOO  شرکت واحد اتوبوسرانی تهران و حومه، 1399
پروژه تهیه فهرست انتشارآلاینده‌های هوای کلان شهرهای کشور, معاونت محیط زیست انسانی سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست، 1398
عابدی, مهدی. بررسی اجمالی استفاده از اتوبوس‌های برقی و هیبریدی در حمل و نقل شهری. تهران, معاونت علمی و فناوری یاست جمهوری، 1401
دانایی فرد, حسن. آذر، عادل، الوانی، سیدمهدی. روش شناسی پژوهش کیفی در مدیریت: رویکردی جامع, صفار-اشراقی. 1388
متصدی زرندی, سعید، نصیری, رسول، و یوسفی, مهتاب. "ارزیابی اثرات زیست محیطی توسعه سیستم حمل و نقل عمومی برقی در شهر تهران." مجله پژوهش در بهداشت محیط 8(2)، 1401، 193-210
محمدپور, احمد. ضد روش: زمینه‌های فلسفی و رویه‌های عملی در روش‌شناسی کیفی. قم: لوگوس، 1397
Coffman, Makena, Paul Bernstein, and Sherilyn Wee. "Electric vehicles revisited: a review of factors that affect adoption."   Transport Reviews 37.1 (2017): 79-93.
Editoial. "Electric bus, main fleets and projects around the world." from 2022
Han, Heesup, et al. "The extended self-identify-based electric product adoption model and airline business strategy: A new theoretical framework for green technology products." Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing 38.3 (2021): 247-262.
Javid, Roxana J., and Ali Nejat. "A comprehensive model of regional electric vehicle adoption and penetration." Transport Policy 54 (2017): 30-42.
Jones, C. Global electric vehicle sales up 160% in H1 2021 despite supply constraints. Singapore, Canalys.2021.
Kester, Johannes, et al. "Policy mechanisms to accelerate electric vehicle adoption: a qualitative review from the Nordic region." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 94 (2018): 719-731.
Kumar, Rupesh, et al. "Addressing the challenges to electric vehicle adoption via sharing economy: An Indian perspective." Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal (2020).
Langbroek, Joram HM, Joel P. Franklin, and Yusak O. Susilo. "The effect of policy incentives on electric vehicle adoption." Energy Policy 94 (2016): 94-103.
Li, Jing-Quan. "Battery-electric transit bus developments and operations: A review." International Journal of Sustainable Transportation 10.3 (2016): 157-169.
Liu, Rong, et al. "The relationship between symbolic meanings and adoption intention of electric vehicles in China: The moderating effects of consumer self-identity and face consciousness." Journal of Cleaner Production 288 (2021): 125116.
Mahmoud, Moataz, et al. "Electric buses: A review of alternative powertrains." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 62 (2016): 673-684.
Mayring, Philipp. "Qualitative content analysis." A companion to qualitative research 1.2 (2004): 159-176.
Rezvani, Zeinab, Johan Jansson, and Jan Bodin. "Advances in consumer electric vehicle adoption research: A review and research agenda." Transportation research part D: transport and environment 34 (2015): 122-136.
Shalender, Kumar, and Naman Sharma. "Using extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict adoption intention of electric vehicles in India." Environment, Development and Sustainability 23.1 (2021): 665-681.
Singh, Virender, Vedant Singh, and S. Vaibhav. "A review and simple meta-analysis of factors influencing adoption of electric vehicles." Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 86 (2020): 102436.
Soulopoulos, D. N. "Electric Vehicle Outlook 2022." from
Suresh, Subashini, et al. "Developments in the UK road transport from a smart cities perspective." Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management (2020).
Wang, Nan, et al. "Does lead userness matter for electric vehicle adoption? An integrated perspective of social capital and domain‐specific innovativeness." Journal of Consumer Behavior 21.6 (2022): 1405-1419.