Institutional Analysis of the Actors’ Roles in the Process of National Technology Megaprojects (Case Study: Two Megaprojects in Iran Aviation Industry)

Document Type : Research Article (Original Article)


1 PhD candidate of Technology Management , Department of Management and Accounting, College of Farabi, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Management and Accounting, College of Farabi, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran.

4 Professor, Faculty of Management and Industrial Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.


The aviation industry is considered as a critical strategic industry in complex product systems for the national economy and security. The main purpose of this paper is the institutional analysis of the actors’ roles in the implementation process of two national technology megaprojects in Iran aviation industry. By examining the backgrounds and experiences of late comer countries in megaprojects of designing and developing products, a framework of actors and their measures in each stage of these megaprojects has been presented. The present study strategy is dual case study, its orientation is applied, its purpose is descriptive and its approach is qualitative. The primary data gathering tool is interviews with 14 experienced experts who were involved in two studied megaprojects in the field of aviation which was conducted in the second half of 2019. In order to collect secondary data, the whole available documents and evidence regarding to Iran aviation industry, and especially the two studied megaprojects have been used. The method of data analysis is through content analysis and axial coding. According to the findings of this study, national technology megaprojects are complex and multi-stage processes. Therefore, their implementations require cooperation and coordination among an extensive network of different institutions such as public and private sectors, universities and research centers. The results of this research could be used by policy makers and responsible institutions for better planning and effective management of national megaprojects in the field of aviation.


الیاسی, مهدی, منطقی, منوچهر, بامداد صوفی, جهانیار, میرباقری, سید محمد. تحلیل تاریخی زیرساختهای قابلیتساز درون بنگاهی در صنعت ساخت هواپیمای مسافری (بررسی موردی: امبرائر برزیل، بمباردیرکانادا، پروژههای ساخت هواپیمای مسافری در چین، ژاپن و ایران). مجله بهبود مدیریت. دوره 14, شماره 1, بهار 1399, 59-31.
بهارلو, مهدی, میرعمادی, طاهره, بوشهری, علیرضا, الیاسی, مهدی. گذار فناورانه در نظام اجتماعی فنی رزم هوایی ایران با تمرکز بر فناوری پهپاد. مجله بهبود مدیریت. دوره 13, شماره 2, تابستان 1398, 30-1.
معاونت علمی و فناوری ریاست جمهوری، آیین‌نامه طرح های کلان ملی فناوری و نوآوری، مرکز طرح های کلان ملی فناوری، انتشارات دانش بنیان فناور, 1396.
میرباقری، سید محمد. "الگوی همپایی تکنولوژی (catch up) در محصولات دارای فناوری پیچیده (cops) در صنعت ساخت هواپیماهای مسافری". پایان نامه دکتری مدیریت تکنولوژی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی. 1397.
نقی‌زاده, محمد, منطقی, منوچهر, نقی زاده, رضا. همگرایی توانمندی‌های علمی و فناورانه بازیگران مختلف در توسعه سیستم های تولیدی پیچیده هوایی. فصلنامه مدیریت توسعه فناوری. دوره 3, شماره 2, پاییز 1394, 54-27.
Aaltonen, K. and Kujala, J.. “A project lifecycle perspective on stakeholder influence strategies in global projects,” Scandinavian Journal of Management, 26 no 4 (2010): 381–97.
Alshaigi, Homoud, Ahmed Al-Ashaab, and Cranfield Cranfield. "The evolving issue of aerospace knowledge transfer to the developing countries." In Proceedings of the 13 th International Conference on Manufacturing Research (ICMR2015), pp. 117-122. 2015.
Altshuler, Alan A., and David E. Luberoff. Mega-projects: The changing politics of urban public investment. Brookings Institution Press, 2004.
Anderson, Stuart D., Keith Robert Molenaar, and Cliff J. Schexnayder. Guidance for cost estimation and management for highway projects during planning, programming, and preconstruction. Vol. 574. Transportation Research Board, 2007.
Базикова, Ирина Васильевна. "Основные проблемы реализации проекта" Sukhoi Superjet 100"." Вестник университета 6 (2018).
Bosso, Christopher J. "The contextual bases of problem definition." The politics of problem definition (1994): 182-203.
Cook, F. L. "The Politics of Problem Definition: Shaping the Policy Agenda, by David A. Rochefort and Roger W. Cobb, Eds.: American Political Science Review." (1995).
Capka, J. Richard. "Megaprojects--they are a different breed." Public Roads 68, no. 1 (2004).
Cassiolato, J., Bernardes, R., & Lastres, H.. “Innovation Systems in the South:a case study of Embarer in Brazil.” Paper prepared for UNCTAD-DITE investment policy and capacity-building branch (2002).
Chen, J., Tong, L. & Ngai, E.. Inter-organizational knowledge management in complex products and systems Challenges and an exploratory framework. Journal of Technology Management in China, 2 (2) (2007): 134 – 144.
Chinyio, Ezekiel, and Paul Olomolaiye, eds. Construction stakeholder management. John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
Cliff, Roger, Chad JR Ohlandt, and David Yang. Ready for takeoff: China's advancing aerospace industry. Rand Corporation, 2011.
Cooke-Davies, Terry. "The “real” success factors on projects." International journal of project management 20, no. 3 (2002): 185-190.
Dewes, Mariana de Freitas, Odair Lelis Gonçalez, Angelo Pássaro, and Antonio Domingos Padula. "Open innovation as an alternative for strategic development in the aerospace industry in Brazil." Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management 2, no. 3 (2010): 349-360.
Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. "Agency theory: An assessment and review." Academy of management review 14, no. 1 (1989): 57-74.
Figueiredo, P., G. Silveira, and R. Sbragia. "Risk partnership with suppliers: the case of Embraer." J Technol Manag Innov Cap 17, no. 1 (2008): 241-263.
Flyvbjerg, Bent. "From Nobel Prize to project management: Getting risks right." Project management journal 37, no. 3 (2006): 5-15.
Flyvbjerg, Bent. "What you should know about megaprojects and why: An overview." Project management journal 45, no. 2 (2014): 6-19.
Flyvbjerg, Bent, Massimo Garbuio, and Dan Lovallo. "Delusion and deception in large infrastructure projects: two models for explaining and preventing executive disaster." California management review 51, no. 2 (2009): 170-194.
Flyvbjerg, Bent, Mette Skamris Holm, and Soren Buhl. "Underestimating costs in public works projects: Error or lie?." Journal of the American planning association 68, no. 3 (2002): 279-295.
Flyvbjerg, Bent, Mette K. Skamris Holm, and Søren L. Buhl. "How common and how large are cost overruns in transport infrastructure projects?. " Transport reviews 23, no. 1 (2003): 71-88.
Fukuoka, Toshiyasu, Kaoru Tsukigase, and Keisuke Kumagai. "Fatigue and Damage Tolerance Substantiation Approach for a Regional Jet." In Advanced Materials Research, vol. 891, pp. 1688-1693. Trans Tech Publications Ltd, 2014.
Gellert, P. K., and B. D. Lynch. ISSJ 175 UNESCO. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd, 2003.
Goldstein, Andrea. "The political economy of industrial policy in China: The case of aircraft manufacturing." Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies 4, no. 3 (2006): 259-273.
Greer, William, Joseph Hein, Michael Hinson, and Wayne Stout. "Designing the Learjet Model 45." In Aircraft Engineering, Technology, and Operations Congress, p. 3951. 1995.
Greiman, Virginia A. Megaproject management: Lessons on risk and project management from the Big Dig. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.
Hall, Andrew J., Norman Clark, Sarah Taylor, and R. V. Sulaiman. Institutional Learning Through Technical Projects: Horticulture Technology R and D Systems in India. Agricultural Research and Extension Network, 2001.
Haynes, Wendy. "Constructing an oversight plan for the central artery/tunnel project: The long and winding road." In Manuscript in progress and presented at the American Society for Public Administration National Conference in Atlanta, Georgia: Author. 1996.
Hirschman, Albert O. Development projects observed. Brookings Institution Press, 2014.
Hobday, Mike. "The project-based organisation: an ideal form for managing complex products and systems?. " Research policy 29, no. 7-8 (2000): 871-893.
Holzmann, Vered, Aaron Shenhar, Yao Zhao, and Benjamin Melamed. "Cracking the Code of Megaproject Innovation." The Oxford Handbook of Megaproject Management (2017): 453.
Koch, Tina. "Establishing rigour in qualitative research: the decision trail." Journal of advanced nursing 19, no. 5 (1994): 976-986.
Lee, Jaymin. "Technology imports and R&D efforts of Korean manufacturing firms." Journal of Development Economics 50, no. 1 (1996): 197-210.
Luberoff, David, Alan A. Altshuler, and Christie I. Baxter. Mega-project: A Political History of Boston's Multibillion Dollar Artery/tunnel Project. Taubman Center for State and Local Government, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 1994.
Matthews, Ron, and Alma Lozano. "The mercurial development of Russia's United Aircraft Corporation." Defense & Security Analysis 28, no. 2 (2012): 152-162.
McKinsey Global Institute. Infrastructure Productivity: How to Save $1 Trillion a Year. New York: McKinsey and Company, (2013).
MECHAM, MICHAEL. "Evolution of the revolution: 787's impact will likely be remembered long after its tardiness is forgotten." Aviation Week & Space Technology 173, no. 34 (2011).
Merrow, Edward. "Understanding the Outcomes of Megaprojects. RAND Corporation." (1988).
Miller, J. "America's Emerging Public/Private Infrastructure Strategy: The End of Privatization." (1997).
Miller, Roger, and Brian Hobbs. "Governance regimes for large complex projects." Project Management Journal 36, no. 3 (2005): 42-50.
Miller, Roger, and Donald R. Lessard. The strategic management of large engineering projects: Shaping institutions, risks, and governance. MIT press, 2001.
Moody, James Bradfield, and Mark Dodgson. "Managing complex collaborative projects: Lessons from the development of a new satellite." The Journal of Technology Transfer 31, no. 5 (2006): 568-588.
Naghizadeh, M, “A Model for Technological Capability Improvement in Avionic technology-based firms”, published PhD thesis, University of Allameh Tabataba’I Tehran 2011. Retrieved from
Naghizadeh, Mohammad, Manoochehr Manteghi, Marina Ranga, and Reza Naghizadeh. "Managing integration in complex product systems: The experience of the IR-150 aircraft design program." Technological forecasting and social change 122 (2017): 253-261.
Pinto, J. K.. Project Management Achieving Competitive Advantage. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson (2009).
Institute, Project Management. "A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK (R) Guide." Project Management Institute, 2013.
Sanvido, Victor Ernest, and Mark Konchar. Selecting project delivery systems: Comparing design-build, design-bid-build and construction management at risk. Project Delivery Institute, 1999.
Schreier, Margrit. "Ways of doing qualitative content analysis: disentangling terms and terminologies." In Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research, vol. 15, no. 1. 2014.
Schulman, Paul R. Large-scale policy making. Praeger, 1980.
Setta, Koji, Toshiyasu Fukuoka, Kasumi Nagao, and Keisuke Kumagai. "Full Scale Fatigue Testing for Mitsubishi Regional Jet." In International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue, pp. 762-770. Springer, Cham, 2019.
Steenhuis, Harm-Jan, and Erik J. de Bruijn. "Developing countries and the aircraft industry: match or mismatch?." Technology in Society 23, no. 4 (2001): 551-562.
Stiglitz, Joseph E. "Principal and agent." In Allocation, information and markets, pp. 241-253. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 1989.
Tang, Christopher S., Joshua D. Zimmerman, and James I. Nelson. "Managing new product development and supply chain risks: The Boeing 787 case." In Supply Chain Forum: An International Journal, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 74-86. Taylor & Francis, 2009.
Tobin, James. Great Projects: The Epic Story of the Building of America, from the Taming of the Mississippi to the Invention of the Internet. Simon and Schuster, 2012.
Тихонов, А. И., and А. А. Сазонов. "Инновационный Российский самолет SUKHOI SUPERJET 100 как вектор развития авиастроения будущего." Экономика и предпринимательство 7 (2018): 289-292.
Tyroler-Cooper, Samm, and Alison Peet. "The Chinese Aviation Industry: Techno-Hybrid Patterns of Development in the C919 Program." The Journal of Strategic Studies 34, no. 3 (2011): 383-404.
U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory. Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Strategic Energy Analysis and Planning, Data update 1/13/2012.
Yin, Robert K. "Case study research: Design and methods. Sage publications." Thousand oaks (2009).
  • Receive Date: 18 November 2020
  • Revise Date: 13 April 2021
  • Accept Date: 17 April 2021
  • First Publish Date: 17 April 2021