قانون رقابت در عصر کسب و کارهای پلتفرمی (مطالعه چند موردی)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مدیریت صنعتی، دانشکده علوم اقتصادی و اداری، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه مدیریت تکنولوژی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه اقتصاد دانش‌بنیان، پژوهشکده مطالعات فناوری، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

کسب و کارهای پلتفرمی گونه‌ای نوین از فعالیت‌های اقتصادی را مبتنی بر فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات ایجاد کرده‌اند. هر چند دولت‌ها نوآوری‌های این کسب و کارها را تشویق می‌کنند، اما آنها چالش‌هایی را در محیط اقتصادی ایجاد می‌کنند که نشان از کاهش کارآیی قوانین اقتصادی از جمله قانون رقابت دارد. پژوهش حاضر با تاکید بر ویژگی‌های مشترک عصر کسب و کارهای پلتفرمی تلاش کرده است، اثرات این ویژگی‌ها را بر مصادیق، چگونگی تشخیص و مرجع قانون رقابت شفاف نماید. برای این منظور هجده پرونده‌های نقض رقابت در کشورهای برزیل، روسیه، هند، چین، آفریقای جنوبی و ایران مبتنی بر مطالعه چند موردی انتخاب شده است. نتایج نشان می‌دهد، پنج ویژگی عصر کسب و کارهای پلتفرمی اعم از الف) بازارهای دوسویه و اثر شبکه ب) دسترسی به جای مالکیت ج) مدل درآمدی و قیمت‌گذاری د)نوآوری در مدل کسب و کار و بخش‌بندی نوین اقتصادی و ه) داده، مالکیت آن و حریم خصوصی بر سه مصداق رفتارهای ضدرقابتی (کارتل، سوء رفتار و ادغام) موثر هستند. آنچنانکه مصادیق جدیدی از قراردادهای افقی، ایفای نقش هاب، قراردادهای عمودی (کارتل/تبانی)، خودترجیحی، تبعیض، منع دسترسی از طریق دروازه، استثمار، هم‌بسته کردن کالا و خدمات و قیمتگذاری تهاجمی (سوء رفتار) و گردش مالی شرکت‌ها و ساختار بازار (ادغام) ظهور می‌یابد. دوم آنکه این ویژگی‌ها بر چگونگی تعریف بازار مربوطه (محصول مربوطه و جغرافیای مربوطه) و همچنین تشخیص قدرت مشهود بازار موثر هستند. علاوه بر این دو، پژوهش حاضر اهمیت وجود و طراحی مرجع رسیدگی به رقابت در تناظر با تنظیم‌گر بخشی را برجسته کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Competition Law in the Age of Platform Businesses (A Multi-Case Studies)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Javad Soltanzadeh 1
  • Mehdi Elyasi 2
  • Meysam Narimani 3
1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Technology Studies Institute, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Platform businesses formed new types of economic activities based on information and communication technology. Although governments encourage these businesses, they create challenges in the economic environment that indicate a failure in the efficiency of market mechanism and economic laws, especially Competition Law. This study aims to clarify the effects of business platform features on the Competition law and its Authority. For this purpose, a selected list of (anti) competition cases in Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa (Brics), and Iran has been selected based on a multi-case study. The results show five characteristics of platform businesses age, including a) two-sided markets and network effect b) access instead of ownership c) revenue model and pricing d) innovation in business model and new economic segmentation, and e) data, its ownership, and privacy affect the three instances of the cartel, abuse dominance, and merger principles; Such as new examples of horizontal contracts, hub role-playing, vertical contracts (cartel/collusion), self-preferences, discrimination, denial of access through gateways, exploitation, assimilation of goods and services and aggressive/predatory pricing (abuse dominance) and changing corporate turnover and market structure (Merger). Second, these characteristics affect how the relevant market is defined (relevant product and relevant geography) and recognize the apparent market power. In addition, this study highlights the importance of designing a competition law authority concerning the sectoral regulator.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competition
  • Competition Law
  • Competition Law Authority
  • Platform business
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